What Are Sustainable Food Systems?

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Sustainable food systems refer to agriculture that produces nutritious food with positive environmental, social, and economic impacts. It prioritizes environmentally sound methods, enhances the quality of life for farmers and society, and efficiently uses non-renewable resources.

In stark contrast to sustainable food systems, the current predominant model of agriculture, often referred to as industrial or modern agriculture, has significant shortcomings.

This model is characterized by large-scale, monoculture farming heavily relying on chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs). While it has succeeded in producing large quantities of food, this has come at a steep cost.

One of the major issues with modern agriculture is its negative impact on biodiversity. Traditional farming methods often emphasize crop diversity as a natural defense against pests and disease and as a strategy for soil conservation. However, with modern agriculture's emphasis on monocultures, we’ve seen a dramatic reduction in the diversity of our food system.

We’ve lost over 90% of traditional crop varieties and 50% of livestock breeds, increasing our food system's vulnerability to pests, disease, and climate change.

Additionally, modern agriculture has been linked to various environmental issues, including deforestation, soil degradation, water pollution, and the decline of pollinators. Industrial farming practices often lead to the overuse of water resources and contribute significantly to greenhouse gas emissions.

Food waste is another critical issue in our global food system. The United Nations estimate that 50% of all global fruits and vegetables are wasted yearly.

This waste occurs at all stages of the food chain, from farms, during transportation, in retail stores, and households. Not only does this result in a massive waste of resources used to grow, process, and transport this food, but decomposing food waste in landfills also contributes to methane emissions, a potent greenhouse gas.

What's the definition of sustainable food systems?

The United Nations Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) defines a sustainable food system as "a food system that delivers food security and nutrition for all in such a way that the economic, social and environmental bases to generate food security and nutrition of future generations are not compromised."

This means that the system must:

  1. Be profitable throughout (economic sustainability).
  2. Have broad-based benefits for society (social sustainability).
  3. Have a positive or neutral impact on the natural environment (environmental sustainability).

It's a holistic approach that considers every aspect of the food system, from the farm to the table, including production, processing, distribution, consumption, and disposal. The goal is to create a system that provides healthy food to meet current needs while maintaining the capacity to meet future needs.

It's also worth mentioning that the FAO emphasizes small-scale farmers, advocating for their ability to produce a significant portion of the world's food and their potential to be a driving force in establishing sustainable food systems.

What are the biggest issues with our current food system?

Issue 1 Climate Change

Agriculture significantly contributes to greenhouse gas emissions. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), agriculture, forestry, and land use change are responsible for just under a quarter (24%) of greenhouse gas emissions.

This includes synthetic fertilizers, which release nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas. Sustainable farming practices, such as organic farming, agroforestry, and permaculture, can significantly reduce these emissions. Moreover, these practices can help sequester carbon in the soil, thereby mitigating the effects of climate change.

Issue 2 Monocultures

Modern agricultural practices often involve cultivating large areas with a single crop, known as monocultures. This practice increases susceptibility to pests and diseases, leading to the increased use of pesticides and herbicides.

According to the Union of Concerned Scientists, 90% of the corn and soy grown in the U.S. are from genetically engineered seeds designed to resist pests and herbicides.

Diversified farming systems, a cornerstone of sustainable agriculture, can help break this cycle by promoting crop diversity and rotation, reducing pest pressure, and enhancing soil health.

Issue 3 Food Insecurity

Despite global food production being sufficient to feed the world's population, the FAO estimates that about 828 million people still go hungry. This is often due to issues with access and distribution rather than production.

Local, sustainable food systems can help address this issue by shortening supply chains, strengthening local economies, and improving access to nutritious food.

Issue 4 Chemical Use

Many modern farming practices rely heavily on synthetic pesticides and herbicides, like glyphosate, which the International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified as a probable human carcinogen.

In 2016, US farmers used approximately 287 million pounds of glyphosate. Sustainable farming practices reduce or eliminate these chemicals, instead focusing on natural pest management techniques and healthy soil practices to prevent disease.

Issue 5 Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

Over 90% of US corn, cotton, and soy grown are genetically modified. The health impacts of GMOs on humans are still not fully understood. Still, there is concern about the increase in herbicide use associated with GMOs and the potential for increased exposure to these chemicals.

Sustainable agriculture promotes traditional and heirloom seed varieties, contributing to biodiversity and resilience in the face of climate change.

Sustainable Food Systems Solutions

1. Agroforestry

This is a land management system that combines trees with crops or livestock. It enhances biodiversity, reduces erosion, and increases carbon sequestration. According to the World Agroforestry Centre, agroforestry can remove about 1.1 billion tons of carbon dioxide annually, equivalent to about 10% of anthropogenic carbon emissions.

Agroforestry is a dynamic, ecologically-based, natural resources management system that, through the integration of trees on farms and in the agricultural landscape, diversifies and sustains production for increased social, economic, and environmental benefits for land users at all levels. It's an innovative approach to land management that combines agriculture and forestry practices to create integrated and sustainable land-use systems.

Three key aspects define agroforestry:

  • Diversity: Unlike monoculture farming, agroforestry involves growing various crops, trees, and sometimes livestock in the same area. This mix can lead to greater biodiversity, resilience, and productivity.
  • Interactions: In agroforestry systems, the trees, crops, and/or animals interact in ways that can benefit each other and the overall system. For instance, trees can provide shade, act as windbreaks, and help prevent soil erosion. They can also contribute to the fertility of the land by fixing nitrogen or bringing up nutrients from deep within the soil.
  • Management: Agroforestry requires thoughtful planning and careful management to balance the needs and outputs of the different components. Decisions such as what species to plant, where to plant them, and when to harvest can significantly impact the system's productivity and sustainability.

Benefits of agroforestry include:

  • Soil Health: Trees can contribute to soil health by reducing erosion and improving soil structure and fertility.
  • Climate Resilience: Agroforestry systems can be more resilient to climate extremes like droughts and floods. They can also mitigate climate change by sequestering significant amounts of carbon.
  • Biodiversity: By providing diverse habitats, agroforestry can support a wide range of wild species, which can contribute to pest control and pollination.
  • Socio-Economic Factors: Agroforestry can provide multiple products (timber, fruit, nuts, etc.) from the same piece of land, leading to diversified income sources and increased financial stability for farmers.

The World Agroforestry Centre suggests that agroforestry is practiced by 1.2 billion people globally and contributes to the livelihoods of millions of people, especially smallholder farmers in developing countries. Despite its potential, agroforestry remains underutilized in many parts of the world, partly due to policy barriers, lack of knowledge and training, and market limitations.

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2. Regenerative Agriculture

Regenerative agriculture is a conservation and rehabilitation approach to food and farming systems. It focuses on topsoil regeneration, increasing biodiversity, improving the water cycle, enhancing ecosystem services, supporting biosequestration, and increasing resilience to climate change.

Regenerative agriculture advocates for farming and grazing practices that, among other benefits, reverse climate change by rebuilding the organic matter in soil and restoring degraded soil biodiversity. This results in both carbon drawdown and an improvement in the water cycle.

Here are some of the principles of regenerative agriculture:

Improve Soil Health

This involves using cover crops, reducing tillage, and integrating livestock. These practices help to build organic matter in the soil, making it more fertile and better able to retain water.

Promote Biodiversity

Biodiversity is important not only within the soil but also in the plants grown and the wildlife the farm supports. Diversified crop rotations and multi-species cover crops can help to enhance biodiversity.

Integrated Pest Management

Rather than relying on synthetic pesticides, regenerative agriculture uses natural processes to control pests. This can include promoting beneficial insects that prey on pests and rotating crops to break pest life cycles.

Grass-fed Livestock

In regenerative systems, animals are often grass-fed and moved around to graze in different areas. This can help to build soil fertility and reduce the need for synthetic fertilizers.

Sequester Carbon

By building soil organic matter, regenerative agriculture helps to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. This can contribute to efforts to mitigate climate change.

Research has shown that regenerative farming practices can lead to healthier, more resilient farms and ecosystems. They can increase farmers' profits by improving yields and reducing the need for expensive inputs. In addition, they can help to sequester carbon, improve local water quality, and support wildlife habitat.

The Rodale Institute, a leader in organic farming research, has claimed that if all farms worldwide adopted regenerative practices, it could sequester more than 100% of annual CO2 emissions. While these numbers are still under discussion, shifting towards more regenerative practices could significantly impact our climate and food security challenges.

3. Organic Agriculture

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Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system that promotes and enhances biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity. It's based on minimal use of off-farm inputs and on management practices that restore, maintain, and enhance ecological harmony.

Here's a deep dive into some specific aspects of organic agriculture:

Natural Fertility Management

Organic farming relies heavily on the natural breakdown of organic matter, using techniques like green manure and compost, which help maintain the soil's structure and health. Though some exceptions exist, synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are generally prohibited in organic farming.

Crop Diversity

Organic farming typically involves systems that encourage biodiversity. It promotes crop rotations and cover crops, aiding pest, disease, and weed management. This biodiversity, in turn, encourages a variety of insects and soil organisms that help control pests and diseases, reducing the need for chemical inputs.

Animal Welfare

Organic standards require that animals are treated humanely and are provided with a diet and living conditions appropriate to their health and natural behavior. This includes access to the outdoors and freedom to move around.

No Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

Organic farming does not allow using GMOs engineered to withstand herbicides or produce insecticides.

Sustainable Resource Usage

Organic farming techniques aim to optimize resource use, reducing agriculture's environmental footprint. These techniques minimize soil erosion, conserve water, and reduce pollution.

Certified organic products are grown and processed according to strict national standards that regulate the amount and type of synthetic inputs used and which farming practices can be applied.

These standards vary from country to country, but their core principle is the same - to produce food sustainably using environmentally and animal-friendly farming methods.

Organic agriculture holds a lot of potential for improving the sustainability of farming. It can deliver equally or more nutritious foods containing fewer pesticide residues than conventionally grown crops.

Moreover, organically managed soils can convert carbon dioxide from a greenhouse gas into a carbon sink, aiding the fight against climate change.

4. Agroecology

Agroecology is the science behind sustainable agriculture, combining agronomy, ecology, and social sciences. It encourages diverse cropping systems, natural pest management, and preserving local knowledge.

The UN Special Rapporteur on The Right To Food stated in 2014 that if sufficiently supported, agroecology can double food production in entire regions within ten years while mitigating climate change and alleviating rural poverty.

Agroecology is an approach to sustainable farming that views agricultural areas as ecosystems. In other words, it's an understanding of ecological processes applied to agricultural production systems. It's a scientific discipline, a set of practices, and a social movement.

It works with nature, rather than against it, to create farming systems that enhance biodiversity and sustainably coexist with local ecosystems.

Here are some key elements of agroecology:


Agroecology values using many different types of crops and animals within a single farming system. This diversity helps to spread risk, maintain and improve soil fertility, control pests, and provide a more varied diet.


Agroecological systems aim to create and enhance beneficial biological interactions. This can include, for example, growing crops together that mutually benefit each other (a practice known as intercropping), or maintaining natural habitats that support beneficial wildlife.


By valuing biodiversity and working with local conditions and knowledge, agroecology can create farming systems that are more resilient to stresses like disease, drought, and climate change.


Agroecology seeks to create farming systems that regenerate their fertility and vitality. By using practices such as composting, green manure, and cover cropping, farms can improve their soil health and structure over time, leading to more productive crops and healthier ecosystems.

Socioeconomic Equity

Agroecology is often linked with social movements that seek to create more just and equitable food systems. It values local knowledge and promotes farming practices that small-scale farmers can manage.


Agroecological systems aim for sustainability across multiple dimensions, from environmental impact to social equity to economic viability.

Implementing agroecology can help ensure food security while preserving the natural environment and empowering local communities. It's about changing farming practices and rethinking our whole food system - from farm to fork.

5. Biodynamic Agriculture

Biodynamic Agriculture, founded by Rudolf Steiner in the early 20th century, is a holistic, ecological, and ethical approach to farming, gardening, food, and nutrition. This unique system views the farm as a self-sustaining ecosystem that lives and breathes like any other organism.

It's not just about being free of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers but proactively fostering health and vitality in the agricultural landscape.

Here are some defining aspects of biodynamic agriculture:

Special Preparations

Biodynamic agriculture uses specific preparations made from fermented manure, herbs, and minerals. These preparations, applied in minute quantities, enhance the soil's health and stimulate plant life.

Agriculture In Harmony with Cosmic Rhythms

Biodynamic farmers work harmoniously with natural rhythms, including those of the moon and planets. They schedule planting, cultivating, and harvesting according to these cycles, believing it affects plant growth and vitality.


A biodynamic farm is rich in biodiversity, with crops, orchards, vineyards, gardens, livestock, and wild plants all co-existing. This diversity contributes to the health and resilience of the farming system.

Regeneration of the Land

Biodynamic practices focus on regenerating the land, building healthy soils, and preserving and enhancing food quality.

Integration of Animals

Livestock is considered integral to the farm's ecosystem because manure contributes to soil fertility. They also provide other resources like wool or milk.

The Biodynamic Association and other organizations have found that biodynamic farming can increase soil fertility, enhance crop vitality, and improve food taste and nutritional quality. While it might require more planning and knowledge than other farming methods, proponents believe the results make it worthwhile, contributing to sustainable agriculture and better health for the planet and its people.

6. Permaculture

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Permaculture, a term coined by combining "permanent" and "agriculture," is a unique design system for creating sustainable human environments. The philosophy behind permaculture is one of working with, rather than against, nature.

By closely observing natural ecosystems and mimicking their patterns and features, permaculture aims to create systems that are not just sustainable but also regenerative and self-sufficient.

Here's a deeper dive into the main components of permaculture:

Principles and Ethics

Permaculture is built upon a set of ethics: Care for the Earth, Care for People, and Fair Share. These ethics guide the use of twelve design principles in creating sustainable systems.


Permaculture design aims to integrate the landscape and people harmoniously. A permaculture design sees every element (like plants, water features, or animal systems) of a landscape serving multiple functions and being served by multiple elements, creating a web of interdependencies.

Sustainable Resource Use

One of the goals of permaculture is to meet human needs while using as few non-renewable resources as possible. This means a strong focus on using renewable resources, recycling waste, and maximizing the productive use of energy and materials.

Water Management

Permaculture systems place a high emphasis on water-wise strategies. They aim to slow, sink, and spread water across a landscape to maximize its utility before it leaves the property.


By encouraging a diversity of plants and animals, permaculture systems are more resilient against pests and diseases. The high biodiversity also ensures a more productive and balanced ecosystem.

Community Resilience

Permaculture extends beyond agriculture into community design and social structures, emphasizing local economies, social equity, and cooperative decision-making.

Implementing permaculture can yield numerous benefits, including improved water management, increased biodiversity, and the creation of resilient, self-sufficient communities.

This design philosophy goes beyond mere sustainability, creating systems that regenerate the land, community, and local economy. It embodies the notion that humans can thrive while enhancing, rather than degrading, the ecosystems around them.

7. Aquaponics and Hydroponics

Aquaponics and Hydroponics are exciting and innovative farming methods utilizing technology and clever design to grow food more efficiently and sustainably. Let's delve a little deeper into these agricultural methodologies:


This is a marriage between aquaculture (raising aquatic animals like fish, snails, or prawns in tanks) and hydroponics (cultivating plants in water). In an aquaponics system, water from the aquaculture system, rich in nutrients from fish waste, irrigates and fertilizes hydroponic systems. The plants, in turn, purify the water, which is then recirculated back to the fish tank.

This symbiotic relationship between the fish and plants creates a sustainable ecosystem where both can thrive. It's a closed-loop system that uses water very efficiently, produces less waste, and eliminates the need for chemical fertilizers. Plus, it allows for the simultaneous production of protein (fish) and crops.


This system grows plants in nutrient-rich water, eliminating the need for soil. By providing the plants' roots with direct access to the nutrients they need, hydroponic systems can yield larger, faster-growing plants than traditional soil-based farming.

The conditions (like nutrient levels, pH, and light exposure) can be tightly controlled, increasing efficiency and productivity. Because they use water directly, hydroponics can use up to 90% less water than traditional farming methods.

Hydroponics systems can be set up in urban environments, indoors, or regions with poor soil quality, making it a versatile solution for sustainable agriculture.

Both aquaponics and hydroponics offer numerous benefits for sustainable food production. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), these systems can produce up to 20 times the annual yield of conventional agriculture on the same surface area.

They reduce the land and water needed for farming, making them an excellent solution in water-scarce regions or areas with limited arable land. By optimizing resource use and reducing environmental impact, these methods represent exciting innovations in pursuing sustainable food systems.

Alternative Food Marketplaces and Collaboration for Sustainability

Community-Supported Agriculture (CSA)

Participate in a CSA program where you can purchase a share of a local farmer's crop. This helps support small-scale, sustainable farmers; you'll receive fresh, seasonal produce regularly.

Farmers' Markets

Visit farmers' markets to buy directly from local farmers. This supports local agriculture and reduces the carbon footprint associated with transporting food.

Box Schemes

Box schemes are an example of a community-supported agriculture system, where customers subscribe to receive a regular delivery (usually weekly or fortnightly) of locally produced, seasonal food. The boxes often contain a variety of fruits and vegetables, but can also include dairy, meat, or other farm products.

This direct-to-consumer model benefits both farmers, who gain financial security through subscriptions, and consumers, who receive fresh, healthy, and sustainably grown produce.


In a direct-trade model, retailers and producers use a direct relationship, bypassing traditional supply chain intermediaries. This arrangement can result in higher profits for producers and more transparency for consumers. An example of this is direct-trade coffee, where roasters build relationships with coffee farmers, ensuring fair pay and often investing in sustainability initiatives at the farm level.

Co-ops (Cooperatives)

Cooperatives are enterprises owned and controlled by those using their services. In the food sector, cooperatives can take many forms, including farming co-ops, food production co-ops, and retail co-ops (cooperative groceries).

These entities can support sustainable food systems by prioritizing local, organic, and fair-trade products, paying fair wages to employees, and promoting social equity.

Food Hubs

Food hubs aggregate and distribute locally produced food, often serving as a middleman between producers, consumers, or retailers. They support sustainable food systems by providing small farmers access to larger markets, improving food accessibility, and reducing food miles.

Urban Farms and Community Gardens

Urban farms and community gardens are spaces within cities used to grow food, often using organic or sustainable methods. These initiatives increase local food security, provide community education opportunities, and often utilize otherwise unused urban spaces.

14 Ways You Can Support Sustainable Food Systems

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  1. Purchase "Ugly" Produce: Buying "imperfect" or "ugly" fruits and vegetables can help reduce food waste, as these are often discarded due to their appearance despite being perfectly good to eat.
  2. Grow Your Own: If you have the space and resources, growing your food is a great way to ensure sustainability. Even a small herb garden or a few potted vegetables can make a difference.
  3. Cook at Home: By cooking at home more often, you can control the ingredients and processes, allowing you to choose more sustainable options and reduce waste.
  4. Buy Organic and Fair-Trade: Organic farming practices are typically more sustainable than conventional methods, and fair-trade products ensure fair wages and working conditions for farmers and workers.
  5. Reduce Meat Consumption: The meat industry is one of the biggest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. Reducing meat consumption and eating more plant-based meals can significantly impact your carbon footprint.
  6. Compost Your Scraps: Rather than throwing away food scraps, compost them. This reduces the amount of waste going to landfill and can provide rich nutrients for your garden.
  7. Support Local Farmers: Shopping at local farmers' markets or subscribing to a community-supported agriculture (CSA) box not only supports local agriculture but also reduces the carbon footprint of your food.
  8. Choose Seasonal Produce: Buying fruits and vegetables in season can produce tastier and more nutritious food. It also supports the natural agricultural cycle and reduces reliance on long-distance transportation and refrigeration.
  9. Minimize Processed Foods: Processed foods often require more energy to produce and package, contributing to higher carbon emissions. They also often contain less nutritional value compared to whole foods.
  10. Practice Meal Planning: By planning your meals, you can reduce impulse buying, utilize leftovers, and minimize food waste.
  11. Promote Sustainable Seafood: Choose sustainably caught or farmed options if you consume seafood. Overfishing and harmful fishing practices have drastically affected global fish populations.
  12. Educate Yourself and Others: Stay informed about food and agriculture issues, and share your knowledge. Advocacy can lead to more significant changes in the food system.
  13. Participate in Food Co-ops: Food cooperatives often source from local farmers and provide organic and sustainably-produced goods. Participating in a co-op can help support local economies and more sustainable food production practices.
  14. Advocate for Food Policies: Get involved in local, regional, or national food policy. Advocate for policies that support sustainable agriculture, fair labor practices, and improved access to healthy, affordable food.

A final word on Sustainable Food Systems

In conclusion, the call to action is clear. How we produce, distribute, consume, and waste our food is the cornerstone of our collective well-being, not just for us but for future generations. As we face a rapidly changing climate, dwindling natural resources, and increasing population, sustainable food systems provide a beacon of hope.

They have the potential to address numerous societal and environmental issues, from ensuring food security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions to fostering biodiversity and building more robust, more resilient communities.

As individuals, we all have a role to play in this transformative journey. Whether growing our food, reducing food waste, supporting local farmers, or making conscious dietary choices, every action counts. After all, the food we eat nourishes not just our bodies but also the world in which we live.

So let's embrace the power of sustainable food systems and nourish a healthier, more equitable, and sustainable future.


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